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托福听力必备背景知识:念动动作

2017-10-12 18:02:16 来源:网络托福资料下载

  为了帮助考生更好的备考托福听力,在考试中取得更加理想的成绩。新东方在线托福网为大家带来托福听力必备背景知识:念动动作一文,希望对大家托福备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线托福网!

  Introduction:

  ideomotor action

  指在表象过程中产生的动作,又称意动动作、动念动作。例如,右臂并没有弯曲,而在头脑中出现弯曲右臂的表象时,右臂的二头肌便会发生微弱的收缩。当人手拿细线的一端,细线的另一端悬一小球,同时想象小球沿圆周运动时,小球就会真地沿着圆周微小地晃动,这些就是念动动作。

  Background information:

  The ideomotor response (or "ideomotorreflex"), often abbreviated to IMR, is a concept in hypnosis andpsychological research. It is derived from the terms "ideo" (idea, ormental representation) and "motor" (muscular action). The phrase ismost commonly used in reference to the process whereby a thought or mentalimage brings about a seemingly "reflexive" or automatic muscularreaction, often of minuscule degree, and potentially outside of the awarenessof the subject.

  The associated term "ideo-dynamicresponse" (or "reflex") applies to a wider domain, an extends tothe description of all bodily reactions (including, but not limited to ideo-motorand ideo-sensory responses) caused in a similar manner by certain ideas, e.g.,the salivation often caused by imagining sucking a lemon, which is a secretoryresponse. The notion of an ideo-dynamic response contributed to James Braid'sfirst neuro-psychological explanation of the principle through which suggestionoperated in hypnotism.

  If you were to be asked to imagine doing upyour shoelaces as vividly as possible, your brain would consciously fixate onthe task and work through it as vividly and as logically as possible. Thetheory of IMR would imply that your muscular memory associated with your handswould then attempt the task physically. However, it would abort the processunless it was truly necessary, and curtail the events that would unfold if youwere actually willing to send the complete information along your nervoussystem to your hands. This may therefore involve an involuntary"twitch" or movement, as the associated digits are placed intopreparation of function, processed against reality, and then given the signalnot to actually act.

  Knowledge points:

  1. Ideomotor 一词由心理活动和肌肉反应组成。经常指由思想引出的肌肉反应,程度很低,经常不被人们注意到。

  2. ideo-dynamic 反应一词的含义更加广泛,由思想所引起的所有的身体反应都被包括。比如想象一个很酸的柠檬的时候会分泌唾液。

  3. 如果让你在大脑中尽量生动的想象系鞋带的动作,大脑将会按照实际的动作尽可能生动形象地描述该动作。这就是念动动作的例子。然而如果你不将这一信息完整地通过中枢神经传到身体,很有可能这个念动不会被实现。

  Vocabulary prediction:

  Behaviorism 行动主义

  Psychology 心理学

  Muscular 肌肉的

  Laryngeal 喉的

  Test Point – TPO2L1

  James and others said that this is an idealeading to a motor action, and that is why it is called ‘ideomotor action’—anidea leads to motor activity. If you wish to impress your friends andrelatives, you can change this simple process into a magic trick. Ask people todo something such as I’ve just described: think of something on their left;think of something on their right. You get them to think about two things oneither side with their eyes closed, and you watch their eyes very carefully.

  And if you do that, you’ll discover thatyou can see rather clearly the eye movement—that is, you can see the movementof the eyeballs. Now, then you say, think of either one and I’ll tell whichyou’re thinking of.

  OK. Well, Watson makes the assumption thatmuscular activity is equivalent to thinking. But given everything we’ve beentalking about here, one has to ask: are there alternatives to this motor theory—thisclaim that muscular activities are equivalent to thinking? Is there anythingelse that might account for this change in muscular activity, other than sayingthat it is thinking? And the answer is clearly yes. Is there any way to answerthe question definitively? I think the answer is no.

  Knowledge points

  1.让你的朋友做这件事,想象左右两边都有东西,然后眼睛闭上,同时想左右两边的东西,然后仔细观察他们的眼睛。

  2.然后你会发现,他们有非常明显的眼部运动,你能够看见眼球的活动。

  以上就是新东方在线托福网为你带来的托福听力必备背景知识:念动动作,更多精彩敬请关注新东方在线托福网

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