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2018-03-29 11:46:23 来源:网络托福资料下载



  In the last half of the sixteenth century England emerged as a commercial and manufacturing power in Europe due to a combination of demographic, agricultural and industrial factors. The population of England and Wales grew rapidly from about 2.5 million in the 1520s to more than 3.5 million in 1580, reaching about 4.5 million in 1610. Reduced mortality rates and increased fertility, the latter probably generated by expanding work opportunities in manufacturing and farming (leading to earlier marriage and more children), explained this rapid population. While epidemics rise in plague and occasionally took their toll, the people in England still suffered less than did those in continental Europe. Furthermore, the country had been pulled out of the war that occurred in France and central Europe during the same period.

  在十六世纪的后半期,由于人口因素,农业和工业因素的综合作用,英国成为欧洲的商业和制造业强国。 英格兰和威尔士的人口从1520年的约250万增长到1580年的350多万,在1610年达到约450万。降低死亡率和提高生育率,后者可能是通过扩大制造业和农业工作机会导致早婚和更多的孩子),解释了人口的迅速增长。虽然瘟疫引起疫情上升,偶尔也会造成伤害,但英国人民受到的伤害仍然比欧洲大陆人民更少。此外,英国在同一时期已经从法国和中欧发生的战争中退出。

  England provides the prominent example of the expansion of agricultural production well before the general European agricultural revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A larger population stimulated the increased woollen through crop civilization. English agriculture became more efficient and market-oriented than almost anywhere else the continent.Between 1450 and 1640 the yield of grain per acre increased by the least thirty percent. In sharp contrast with farming in Spain, English land owners brought more dense marshes and woodlands into cultivation.



  The great land estates of the English society largely remained intact and many wealthy land owners aggressively increased the size of their holdings, a precondition for increased productivity. Marriages between the children of landowners also increased the size of land estates. Primogeniture (the full inheritance of land by the eldest son) helped prevent land from being subdivided. Younger sons of independent land owners left the family and went locations. Larger contributed more commercialized farming at the time when an expanding population pushed up demand and prices. Farmland owners turned part of their land into pastureland for sheep in order to adapt to developing woollen trade.

  英国社会的大型土地资产基本上保持完好,许多富裕的地主积极增加其所持有的土地面积,这是提高生产力的先决条件。 土地所有者子女之间的婚姻也增加了土地的规模。 长子继承(长子对土地的完全继承)有助于防止土地被细分。年轻的独立土地所有者的儿子离开了家庭并迁往了继承区。当越来越多的人口推高需求和价格时,商品农业贡献也越来越大。地主将其部分土地变成羊地牧场,以适应发展羊毛贸易。

  Some of the great land owners as well as Yeomen (farmers whose holdings and and status), organized security of land tenure guaranteed their prosperity their holdings in the interest efficiency. Many farmers selected crops for sales in growing London market. In their quest for greater profits, many land owners put their squeeze on their tenants. Between 1580 and 1620 land lords raised rents and altered conditions of land tenure in their favor, preferring shorter phases and forcing tenants to pay an entry fee before agreeing to rent them land. Landlords evicted those who could not afford annual, more onerous terms. But they also pushed tenants toward more productive farming methods, including crop rotation.


  England's exceptional economic development also drew the country's natural resources,including iron, timber, and coal, extracted in far greater quantity than elsewhere in the continent. New industrial development expanded the production of iron and pewter in and around the city of Birmingham. But above all textile manufacturing transformed English economy. Woolens, which accounted for eighty percent of the exports, worsteds (sturdy yarn spun from combed wool fibers), and other cloth found eager buyers in England as well as in the continent. Moreover, late in the sixteenth century as English merchants began making forays across the Atlantic these textiles were also sold in the Americas. Cloth manufacturers undercut production by urban craftspeople by "putting out" work to the villages and farms of the countryside. In such domestic industry poor rural women could spin and make cading (combing fibers in preparation for spin) in their homes.



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