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看英文外刊学托福(第七期):经济学人

2018-12-19 10:15:16来源:新东方 刘瑞鑫

  今年是Facebook有史以来最痛苦的一年,情况还有可能变得更糟糕Facebook的未来,会成为下一个雅虎么?我们来一起看看《经济学人》给出的分析吧!

来源:新东方 刘瑞鑫

  《经济学人》第七期赏析内容:

  文章来源:《经济学人》2018年11月24日期刊

  Business 板块

  Facebook’s future

  The new Yahoo?

  November 24th 2018

  SAN FRANCISCO

  This year has been the most painful in Facebook’s history. It could get even worse.

  原文:

  “BIG TOBACCO” is what the bosses of several large technology firms have started calling Facebook in private and in public. The company has spent the past year fending off critics who claim it is addictive, bad for democracy and overdue for a regulatory reckoning. Being compared to the tobacco giants is one of the business world’s more toxic insults, but it is not the only unflattering analogy circulating. A lower blow is the suggestion that Facebook may become like Yahoo, the one high-flying internet firm that plunged.

  参考译文:

  一些大型科技公司的老板们在私下里和公开场合都开始管Facebook叫“烟草大亨”。在过去这一年里,Facebook一直在努力抵挡飞向它的子弹:“让用户上瘾,对民主不利,监管部门插手太晚。”把一家公司比作烟草巨头在商业界算是一种比较恶毒的侮辱了,但这并不是大家口中流传中贬损Facebook形象的唯一类比。更严重的攻击是Facebook可能变成下一个雅虎——一家曾经非常成功却彻底倾覆的互联网公司。

  原文:

  Even a year ago the idea would have been unthinkable. The social-networking giant, which runs Instagram, WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger as well as its own core service, was thriving. But since January it has become mired in a series of controversies, misjudgments and missteps. It became clear that it had done too little to stop Russian interference in America’s election in 2016. It had to admit that it had shared the personal data of 90m users with outside firms without permission. It later suffered a data breach affecting 50m users.

  参考译文:

  仅仅在一年前,这种说法还是难以想象的。那时,这家社交平台巨头除了运营自己的核心社交平台业务之外,还运营着Instagram、WhatsApp和Facebook Messenger,当时正呈现蓬勃发展之势。但自今年1月以来,一系列争议、误判和失策让它身陷泥潭。已经变得明确的一点是,这家公司在阻止俄罗斯干预2016年美国大选方面无所作为。它已经被迫承认在未经用户许可的情况下与外部公司共享了9000万用户的个人数据。之后它又发生数据泄露,影响了5000万名用户。

  原文:

  The comparison to Yahoo is imperfect. Even at its peak Yahoo never boasted a business as large and profitable as Facebook’s. And the competitive landscape was different. One of the main reasons Yahoo declined is because it lost out to a powerful rival, Google, in online search; Marissa Mayer, its boss from 2012 until its sale to Verizon last year, was unable to restore advertisers’ or employees’ confidence as users left. Today there is no company that truly competes with Facebook’s suite of apps, partly because it has hoovered up competitors such as Instagram, the wildly successful photo app that is at the centre of its future plans.

  参考译文:

  把Facebook比作雅虎并不是很恰当。即使在雅虎的鼎盛时期,它的规模和利润也无法和Facebook相比。而且它们所处的竞争格局也不同。雅虎衰败的一个主要原因是它在网络搜索方面输给了强大的竞争对手谷歌;从2012年到公司于去年被Verizon收购期间担任CEO的玛丽莎·梅耶没能挽回广告商,并且员工因为用户流失失去了信心。而今天没有任何一家公司能真正与Facebook的一系列应用抗衡,原因是它吞并了像Instagram这样的竞争对手。Instagram是一个极其成功的照片应用软件,是Facebook未来发展计划的核心业务。

  原文:

  But people who watched Yahoo’s collapse see ominous similarities. Executive turnover was a leading indicator of its decline; before Ms Mayer was hired it went through four chief executives in three years. Mr Zuckerberg, who controls the majority of Facebook’s voting shares, is not leaving, but many top executives are. This year several have announced their departures, including Instagram’s founders; the boss of Oculus, a virtual-reality acquisition; a co-founder of WhatsApp; and Facebook’s general counsel and its chief security officer. “The number of senior people who have left publicly and denounced the company going out the door is unprecedented. This is Yahoo pre-Marissa Mayer,” says a senior digital-advertising executive.

  参考译文:

  但是,目睹了雅虎衰败的人看到了不详的相似之处。高管频繁变动是雅虎垮掉的主要迹象。在聘请Mayer之前,雅虎在三年内换了四位CEO。掌控Facebook多数投票权的扎克伯格没有要走,但很多高管纷纷离职。今年已经有好几个高管宣布辞职,包括Instagram的创始人、Facebook收购的虚拟现实技术公司Oculus的老板、WhatsAPP的联合创始人,以及Facebook的总法律顾问和首席安全官。一位资深数字广告高管说:“公开离职并在离开时谴责公司的高管数量多到前所未见。玛丽莎·梅耶上台前,雅虎就是这种状态。”

  原文:

  In another echo, the run of negative headlines is harming employee morale. “Horrible” is how one employee describes the atmosphere at Facebook on Blind, an app where people discuss work. That raises two risks. Star performers may leave to work at less controversial companies, and Facebook could end up paying dearly for mediocre employees to stay on (as its share price falls, it has to hand out more in stock- based compensation to keep people).

  参考译文:

  另一个相似之处就是不断爆出的负面新闻打消了员工士气。一位员工在讨论工作的应用软件Blind上用了“恐怖”一词描述了Facebook内部的氛围。这增加了两个方面的风险。优秀员工可能选择跳槽去争议较少的公司,而Facebook为了留住平庸的员工支付他们更高额的薪水。(由于股价下跌,它必须提供更多股权激励以留住人才)

  原文:

  Mr Zuckerberg and Ms Sandberg are under pressure to prove to users and advertisers that Facebook is not only trustworthy but worthy of their time and money. If they cannot do so, and the company’s share price continues its slide, it is possible that Ms Sandberg will be replaced in the next year. Mr Zuckerberg controls the majority of voting shares and is unlikely to go. He will doubtless have thoughts about Yahoo’s sorry tale. The onus is on him to show employees, advertisers and shareholders that Facebook won’t repeat it.

  参考译文:

  扎克伯格和桑德伯格承受着很大的压力,需要向用户和广告商证明Facebook不仅值得信赖,而且值得他们投入时间和金钱。如果做不到这一点,公司的股价也继续下滑的话,桑德伯格有可能明年就被替换掉。扎克伯格掌控着大多数有决权的估分,不太可能离开。他很有可能想过雅虎的不幸结局。他有责任向员工、广告商和股东证明Facebook不会重蹈覆辙。

  下面为大家整理出在托福写作中可以使用的语言表达和素材论据,快来积累下吧。

  素材赏析:

  一:好词

  1:run

  1)词性:v.

  2)释义:运营

  be in charge of; manage

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  3)例句

  Andrea runs her own catering business

  释义:安德里亚经营着自己的餐饮业。

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  2:breach

  1)词性:n.

  2)释义:违反

  infraction or violation of a law, obligation, tie, or standard

  来源:Merrian-Webster dictionary

  3)词组拓展

  breach of copyright 侵犯版权

  breach of contract 违背合同

  breach of promise 违背诺言

  breach of trust 背信

  breach of secrecy泄密

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  4)例句:

  Many people consider her decision to be a breach of trust .

  译文:许多人认为她的决定破坏了彼此信任。

  来源:Merrian-Webster dictionary

  3:rival

  1)词性:n.

  2)释义:竞争对手

  a person or thing competing with another for the same objective or for superiority in the same field of activity

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  3)词组拓展

  a rival for or in sth. 某方面的竞争对手

  rivals in love 情敌

  without rival 无与伦比

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  4:unprecedented

  1)词性:adj.

  2)释义:空前的

  never done or known before

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  3)词组拓展

  unprecedented economic growth

  前所未有的经济增长

  4)例句:

  The government took the unprecedented step of releasing confidential correspondence.

  译文:政府采取了前所未有的步骤, 发布机密信件。

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  5:morale

  1)词性:n.

  2)释义:士气

  the confidence, enthusiasm, and discipline of a person or group at a particular time

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  3)词组拓展:

  to raise or boost morale 提高士气

  to lower sb's morale 使某人精神不振

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  6:trustworthy

  1)词性:adj.

  2)释义:值得信赖的

  able to be relied on as honest or truthful:

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  3)同义词拓展:

  dependable, honest, truthful

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  7:doubtless

  1)词性:adv.

  2)释义:无疑地

  without doubt

  来源:Merrian-Webster dictionary

  3)同义词拓展:

  undoubtedly,unquestionably, indisputably, undeniably

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  4)例句:

  Doubtless you have heard this story before, but I’ll tell it anyway.

  毫无疑问, 你以前听说过这个故事, 但无论如何我还是会讲的。=

  来源:Merrian-Webster dictionary

  8:onus

  1)词性:n.

  2)释义:职责

  burden

  来源:Merrian-Webster dictionary

  3)句式拓展:

  the onus lies or rests on or with sb. 责任在于某人

  the onus is on sb. to do sth. 某人有责任做某事

  4)同义词拓展:

  responsibility, obligation, duty, liability

  来源:Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus

  二:好短语(地道搭配)

  1:in private and in public 在私下里和公开场合

  2:spent time doing sth. 花费时间做某事

  3:social-networking giant 社交网络平台巨头

  4:become mired in 陷入某种困境

  5:a series of controversies 一系列争议

  6:misjudgments and missteps 误判和失策

  7:personal data 个人数据

  8:suffered a data breach 遭受数据泄露

  9:without permission 未经许可

  10:compete with 与···竞争

  11:executive turnover 高管频繁变动

  12:the majority of 大多数

  13:Star performers 优秀员工

  14:mediocre employees 平庸员工

  15:end up doing 以···而告终

  16:stay on 继续在岗

  17:be under pressure to 承受压力面对某事

  18:be worthy of 值得···

  三:好句

  1:同位语

  A lower blow is the suggestion that Facebook may become like Yahoo, the one high-flying internet firm that plunged.

  Today there is no company that truly competes with Facebook’s suite of apps, partly because it has hoovered up competitors such as Instagram, the wildly successful photo app that is at the centre of its future plans.

  “Horrible” is how one employee describes the atmosphere at Facebook on Blind, an app where people discuss work.

  2:并列结构

  The social-networking giant, which runs Instagram, WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger as well as its own core service, was thriving.

  But since January it has become mired in a series of controversies, misjudgments and missteps.

  四:好素材(作文论据)

  看完雅虎的衰败经历以及Facebook面临的挑战和风险,不难看出,新时代领导者除了要有好的沟通能力之外,领导力以及决策力对公司的未来发展起着至关重要的作用,以下素材,小伙伴儿们可以纳入例子素材库灵活运用在自己的作文里哦!

  托福作文素材:

  Mr Zuckerberg and Ms Sandberg are under pressure to prove to users and advertisers that Facebook is not only trustworthy but worthy of their time and money. If they cannot do so, and the company’s share price continues its slide, it is possible that Ms Sandberg will be replaced in the next year. Mr Zuckerberg controls the majority of voting shares and is unlikely to go. He will doubtless have thoughts about Yahoo’s sorry tale. The onus is on him to show employees, advertisers and shareholders that Facebook won’t repeat it.

  托福写作相关题目:

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important characteristic to a successful politician or leader is good communication skills.


本文关键字: 托福英文外刊 托福

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