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新托福阅读背景知识:New directions

2018-08-16 12:16:07来源:网络

  托福阅读复习中,除了大量的真题练习之外,大家可以多了解一些相关的背景知识,这样能够帮助我们更好地来阅读文章内容。那么总结往年的托福阅读考试,具体的哪些背景知识属于高频内容,是大家复习的重点呢?新东方在线托福网为大家整理了相关的内容,供大家参考。

【点击查看新托福阅读背景知识汇总】

  New directions

  Beginning in the 1950's, jazz became even more experimental. Jazz music began to feature nontraditional instruments, such as French horn and bass flute. Jazz musicians began to take an interest in non-Western music, especially the modes (different arrangements of scales), melodic forms, and instruments of Africa, India, and the Far East.

  In the late 1950's, John Lewis, musical director of the Modern Jazz Quartet, worked with classical musician and composer Günter Schuler to write and play orchestral works that combined elements of modern jazz and classical concert music. Stan Kenton also played this so-called third stream music when he toured the United States with a 40-piece orchestra.

  Also during this period, pianist George Russell developed a jazz theory of modes. In 1959, the Miles Davis combo, with pianist Bill Evans and saxophonists John Coltrane and Cannonball Adele, recorded compositions and improvised solos based on modes rather than on patterns of chords.

  In 1960, saxophonist Ornate Coleman reshaped the thinking of younger jazz musicians when he recorded the album Free Jazz with a double quartet. In this recording, Coleman discarded harmony, melody, and regular rhythms. He substituted unstructured improvisation played atonally (in no definite key). Pianist Cecil Taylor and bassist Charles Minus conducted similar atonal experiments.

  In the 1960's, the influence of the music of India entered jazz through the adaptations of John Coltrane. Jazz musicians also began to use more unusual meters, such as 5/4, 7/4, and 9/8.

  以上就是为大家整理的“新托福阅读背景知识:New directions”,更多精彩内容请关注新东方在线托福频道!


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