托福阅读真题精选8

2020-02-01 10:02:07来源:网络

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  Questions 21-29

  Under the Earth's topsoil, at various levels, sometimes under a layer of rock, there are

  deposits of clay. Look at cuts where highways have been built to see exposed clay beds; or

  look at a construction site, where pockets of clay may be exposed. Rivers also reveal clay

  Line along their banks, and erosion on a hillside may make clay easily accessible.

  (5) What is clay made of? The Earth's surface is basically rock, and it is this rock that

  gradually decomposes into clay. Rain, streams, alternating freezing and thawing, roots of

  trees and plants forcing their way into cracks, earthquakes, volcanic action, and glaciers--all of these forces slowly break down the Earth's exposed rocky crust into smaller and smaller pieces that eventually become clay.

  (10) Rocks are composed of elements and compounds of elements. Feldspar, which is the

  most abundant mineral on the Earth's surface, is basically made up of the oxides silica and alumina combined with alkalies like potassium and some so-called impurities such as iron.

  Feldspar is an essential component of granite rocks, and as such it is the basis of clay.

  When it is wet, clay can be easily shaped to make a variety of useful objects, which can

  (15) then be fired to varying degrees of hardness and covered with impermeable decorative coatings of glasslike material called glaze. Just as volcanic action, with its intense heat, fuses the elements in certain rocks into a glasslike rock called obsidian, so can we apply heat to earthen materials and change them into a hard, dense material. Different clays need different heat levels to fuse, and some, the low-fire clays, never become nonporous and

  (20) watertight like highly fired stoneware. Each clay can stand only a certain amount of heat without losing its shape throughsagging or melting. Variations of clay composition and the temperatures at which they are fired account for the differences in texture and appearance between a china teacup and an earthenware flowerpot.

  21. The author's main point in paragraph 1 is that clay deposits

  (A) conceal layers of rock

  (B) can be found in various places

  (C) are usually small

  (D) must be removed from construction sites

  22. It can be inferred from the passage that clay is LEAST likely to be plentiful in which of the following areas?

  (A) In desert sand dunes

  (B) In forests

  (C) On hillsides

  (D) Near rivers

  23. The word "accessible" in line 4 is closest in meaning to

  (A) buried

  (B) improved

  (C) available

  (D) workable

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新东方托福公益课-名师教你解题新技能(1元领课)

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