关注微信领¥50

百门课程¥0元


50万+已关注

科学美国人60秒:日本科学家获诺贝尔医学奖-托福听力下载

2016-12-02 16:16:38来源:科学美国人60秒

点击查看>>科学美国人60秒音频:日本科学家获诺贝尔医学奖

  科学美国人60秒中英文翻译:日本科学家获诺贝尔医学奖

  科学美国人60秒英文文本

  This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

  Got a minute?

  The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine goes to Yoshinori Ohsumi of Japan for his discoveries of mechanisms of what's known as autophagy. Break the word down and you get auto and phagy: from the Greek for self, auto, and eating, phagein. So, self-eating. Autophagy refers to a process in cells whereby they destroy themselves and send the parts out for recycling. Cells do this by enclosing their contents in tiny sacks, called vesicles. Those vesicles then get transported to an organelle within the cell called the lysosome. Where the sacks get degraded and the contents are made available for reuse.

  Autophagy had been observed a half-century before Ohsumi's work in the 1990's while at the University of Tokyo. But it was his research that made clear its fundamental importance. He did that work with baker's yeast. One way he made his discoveries was to interfere with the process and thus see vesicles involved in autophagy start to build up—this action proved that yeast cells performed autophagy. He went on to identify 15 genes crucial for the process.

  Need quick fuel for energy? Autophagy makes that fuel available fast. Need raw materials for maintenance in other cells? Autophagy gets those materials into the system so the body can respond to starvation and other stresses. Infected? Autophagy plays a part in capturing and killing bacteria and viruses. It clears out damaged proteins and organelles, thus helping to fight the effects of aging. At the other end of the life cycle, autophagy is involved in the development of embryos. It's truly a fundamental process.

  Ohsumi is 71 years old. He's currently an emeritus professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. The Nobel Prize comes with a monetary award of about $1.2 million.

  Thanks for the minute for Scientific American — 60-Second Science Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

  中文翻译请点击下一页

为你特别匹配的托福超值课程,快速提分先人一步!
  • 托福12月公益课(第2期)

    托福12月公益课(第2期)

    特点:1天1节公益课,讲干货有实力,高效备考,快速突破!

    课时:10小时

    查看详情
  • 【活动价】新东方托福名师在线一对一(体验课)

    【活动价】新东方托福名师在线一对一(体验课)

    适合人群:想体验新东方在线致赢托福1对1辅导冲分课程的同学

    体验课时:30分钟

    查看详情
  • 大学生旗舰直达班 (冲110分)

    【知心托福】大学生旗舰直达班 (冲110分)

    适合人群:托福目标分数110分!

    课时:343

    查看详情
  • 大学生旗舰直达班 (冲100分)

    【知心托福】大学生旗舰直达班 (冲110分)

    适合人群:托福目标分数100分!

    课时:331

    查看详情
  • 大学生旗舰直达班 (冲90分)

    【知心托福】大学生旗舰直达班 (冲90分)

    适合人群:托福目标分数90分!

    课时:310

    查看详情
全部课程>>
单项突破
直播课堂

更多托福课程
新东方25年教学经验沉淀
托福考生必修课
托福考生,高效提分,安心之选

查看详情>>
更多>>
更多课程>>
更多>>
更多内容
更多>>
距结束 : 00 00 00 00

4小时甩掉“Broken English”,直击托福24+

实战经验分享三人成团免费学

口语6大题精讲;16天社群打卡学习&答疑 活动日期 : 2018.11.08-2018.12.13

价格 : ¥69

678人 已报名

查看详情
更多>>
更多公开课>>
更多>>
更多课程>>