托福阅读练习:人类起源

2020-01-17 17:46:00来源:网络

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  There are two main hypotheses when it comes to explaining the emergence of modern humans. The ‘Out of Africa’ theory holds that homo sapiens burst onto the scene as a new species around 150,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa and subsequently replaced archaic humans such as the Neandertals. The other model, known as multi-regional evolution or regional continuity, posits far more ancient and diverse roots for our kind. Proponents of this view believe that homo sapiens arose in Africa some 2 million years ago and evolved as a single species spread across the Old World, with populations in different regions linked through genetic and cultural exchange.

  Of these two models, Out of Africa, which was originally developed based on fossil evidence, and supported by much genetic research, has been favored by the majority of evolution scholars. The vast majority of these genetic studies have focused on DNA from living populations, and although some small progress has been made in recovering DNA from Neandertal that appears to support multi-regionalism, the chance of recovering nuclear DNA from early human fossils is quite slim at present. Fossils thus remain very much a part of the human origins debate.

  Another means of gathering theoretical evidence is through bones. Examinations of early modern human skulls from Central Europe and Australia dated to between 20,000 and 30,000 years old have suggested that both groups apparently exhibit traits seen in their Middle Eastern and African predecessors. But the early modern specimens from Central Europe also display Neandertal traits, and the early modern Australians showed affinities to archaic Homo from Indonesia. Meanwhile, the debate among paleoanthropologists continues , as supporters of the two hypotheses challenge the evidence and conclusions of each other.

  1 The passage primarily discusses which of the following

  (a) Evidence that supports the “Out of Africa” theory

  (b) Two hypotheses and some evidence on the human origins debate

  (c) The difficulties in obtaining agreement among theorists on the human origins debate

  (d) That fossils remain very much a part of the human origins debate

  2 The word “emergence” in line 1 is closest in meaning to

  (a) complexity

  (b) development

  (c) appearance

  (d) decline

  3 The word “proponents” in line 6 is closet in meaning to

  (a) experts

  (b) advocates

  (c) inspectors

  (d) historians

  4 All of the following are true except

  (a) three methods of gathering evidence are mentioned in the passage

  (b) the multi-regional model goes back further in history.

  (c) the Out of Africa model has had more support from scholars

  (d) DNA studies offer one of the best ways in future to provide clear evidence.

  5 The word “slim” in line 14 is closest in meaning to

  (a) small

  (b) narrow

  (c) thin

  (d) difficult

  6 Which of the following is not true

  (a) the vast majority of genetic studies have focused on living populations

  (b) early modern human skulls all support the same conclusions

  (c) both hypotheses focus on Africa as a location for the new species.

  (d) early modern Australian skulls have similarities to those from Indonesia.

  7 In line 18, the word “their ” refers to which of the following

  (a) Middle Easterners and Africans

  (b) skulls

  (c) central Europeans and Australians

  (d) traits

  8 Which of the following is NOT true about the two hypotheses

  (a) Both hypotheses regard Neandertals to be the predecessors of modern humans

  (b) Genetic studies have supported both hypotheses

  (c) Both hypotheses cite Africa as an originating location.

  (d) One hypothesis dates the emergence of homo sapiens much earlier than the other.

  9 It can be inferred from the passage that

  (a) there is likely to be an end to the debate in the near future

  (b) the debate will interest historians to take part in

  (c) the debate is likely to be less important in future

  (d) there is little likelihood that the debate will die down

  10 According to the passage, the multi-regional evolution model posits far more diverse roots for our kind because

  (a) Evidence from examinations of early modern human skulls has come from a number of different parts of the world.

  (b) DNA from Neandertal appears to support multi-regionalism

  (c) Populations in different regions were linked through genetic and cultural exchange

  (d) This has been supported by fossil evidence

  参考答案:1.b 2.c 3.b 4.d 5.a 6.b 7.c 8.a 9.d 10.c

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