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托福听力艺术类背景知识:现实主义&表现主义

2017-10-12 17:57:50 来源:网络托福资料下载

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  Introduction:

  Realism & Expressionism

  在艺术上指对自然或当代生活做准确、详尽和不加修饰的描述。现实主义摒弃理想化的想像,而主张细密观察事物的外表,依据这个说法,广义的写实主义便包含了不同文明中的许多艺术思潮。在视觉艺术和文学里,现实主义是一个 19 世纪的一场运动,起源于法国。

  表现主义(Expressionismus)此字原为艺术史与批评的专用语,意指不再把自然视为艺术的首要目地,以线条、形体和色彩来表现情绪与感觉作为艺术的唯一目地。此种电影中的演员、物体与布景设计都用来传达情绪与心理状态,不重视原来的物象意义。

  Background information:

  Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is theattempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality andavoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

  Realism has been prevalent in the arts atmany periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and theavoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is theaccurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light andcolor. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as worksofsocial realism, regionalism, or Kitchen sink realism.

  Expressionism was a modernist movement,initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning ofthe 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from asubjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in orderto evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning oremotional experience rather than physical reality.

  Expressionism was developed as anavant-garde style before the First World War. It remained popular during theWeimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range ofthe arts, including expressionist architecture, painting, literature, theatre,dance, film and music.

  The term is sometimes suggestive of angst.In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco aresometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainlyto 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective hasbeen characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such asNaturalism and Impressionism.

  Knowledge points:

  1. 现实主义是尽量真实地呈现物体,避免人工和艺术的加工。

  2. 现实主义者强调丑陋和肮脏。

  3. 表现主义是一种现代运动,最开始在诗歌和绘画,起源于 20 世纪的德国。

  4. 表现主义强调从主观的视角看世界,为了表现个人强烈的情感扭曲客观物体。

  Vocabulary prediction:

  Distort 歪曲,扭曲

  Portrait 肖像

  Exaggerate 扩大,增加

  Genre 类型

  Test Point – TPO21L4

  Professor:

  Eh, but the real reason I want to look atNeel, is that I really find her style ... eh, she had interesting ways ofportraying people. She combined some elements of realism. What’s realism,Alison?

  Student:

  It’s like painting something exactly how itis, so an artist would try to make it as accurate, um... and objective aspossible. Painting stuff just how it appears on the surface.

  Professor:

  Ok, good. So Neel combined realism with,well, actually, with expressionism. And that is? We, we just covered this.

  Student

  Um... It’s into emotion, like artists aretrying to, well, express themselves through

  the painting, right?

  Professor

  Yep. The artist is depicting subjectiveemotions, showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist rather thanthe outward form. So the image itself might be distorted or exaggerated in someway. The expression overrides objective representation. Ok, so, Alice Neelcombined these two styles ... Yes?

  Student

  Em... How is that even possible? How canyour portray something exactly as it is and at the same time distort it withemotions? I don’t get it.

  Professor

  All right, good question. It is actually agood lead-in to some of the techniques that Neel used, that she employed tobridge that contradiction. In a minute, I’ll show you some of her portraits,and I’ll want you to notice a few things about them.

  Knowledge points

  1.现实主义是指按照物品原本的样子刻画它,要求艺术家尽可能的准确的描绘物体。

  2.表现主义是指艺术家对物品带有感情的创作,通过绘画表现感情。

  以上就是新东方在线托福网为你带来的托福听力艺术类背景知识:现实主义&表现主义,更多精彩敬请关注新东方在线托福网

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