如何利用词块法有效提高托福听力

2020-09-15 18:10:00来源:网络

  我们换个角度来谈听力,不谈语音,不谈词汇,不谈技巧,从逻辑思维这一层来分析,在单词都能听懂的情况下,如何提高理解力。我要给大家介绍的方法是语言学中的词块法(lexical chunks),运用到听力里面,我称之为语块听力法。

  在语言学上,对语块的定义是这样的:"Chunks" refers to language that occurs in (semi-) fixed units and that we usually learn as one piece. Collocations, fixed expressions and idioms are all different kinds of chunks。(The TKT course) 听力的学习也离不开词组,孤零零地听单词只会像电脑翻译一样词不达意,提取关键信息就更加困难。单个的词和词组或许能拼凑出大概的意思,但是没有结构的句子都只是词汇与词组的堆砌,堆到后面记忆混乱,听力成灾。只有让单词成群,词组成块,运用逻辑,听力才会清晰。听起来这似乎是很大的工作量,但是如果养成良好的思维习惯,让语块法内化,大脑便会自动对听力的句子进行切分组合,以达到快速准确地理解。今天我将从词组和句子两方面来与大家探讨如何运用词块法提高听力,例子取自TPO真题。

  1. 词组,包括固定搭配,表达和习语等。

  以固定搭配为例,即collocations。Collocations:words that regularly occur together。(The TKT course) 既然是固定的组合,那就要求大家积累,除了帮助听力理解,口语写作时也是极好的素材。

  TPO4-4:

  Student: Not really. I’m worried about other two people in my group. They are just sitting back, not really doing their fair share of the work and waiting for an A. It’s kind of stressing me out, because we are getting close to the deadline and I feel like I’m doing everything for this project。

  Professor:Ah, the good old free rider problem。

  Student:Free rider?

  Professor:Ah, it’s just a term that describes this situation, when people in the group seek to get the benefits of being in a group without contributing to the work。

  Q. Why does the professor mention the ‘free-rider’ problem?

  A. To review a concept he explained in class。

  B. To give the student a plan to solve her problem。

  C. To clarify the problem the student is facing。

  D. To explain a benefit of working in groups。

  上文中“free rider”这一固定搭配出现了两遍且有出题,听力困难有两点:1. 没注意到这个单词,不能定位题目;2. 听到的是单个的单词,不知道词组的意思。

  解题思路:根据其位于problem前,和后面再次搭配出现,先判定 “free rider” 是词组且代指某个问题,我们暂且用“FR”记下,学生表达过抱怨“I’m worried about other two people in my group. They are just sitting back, not really doing their fair share of the work and waiting for an A。” 这句话没有生词没有搭配,可以理解大意是其他人不做事。老师再次解释“it’s just a term that describes this situation, when people in the group seek to get the benefits of being in a group without contributing to the work。” 重申解释“term”,并且强调不做贡献。上下文翻译是搭便车者或不劳而获者。听完发现其实我们的思路也是一直在等老师解释单词,就会很快选出老师在给学生阐述这种现象的问题,答案选C。

  还有几例,大家不妨自己做一做:

  They are taking credit for things they shouldn’t take credit for(接受荣誉). (Tpo4-4)

  I agree, good point. Yes, Beaux had high regard for (尊敬)Sargent’s work. (Tpo19-6)

  2. 句子:简单句抑或长难句,许多都有固定的结构和逻辑关系,如果能用语块法进行处理预测,会减少记忆容量,提高听力效率。

  TPO4-6:

  And as far as the public goes, well…there are about as many individuals who disagree with the government support as there are those who agree. In fact, with artists in particular, you have lots of artists who support and who have benefited from this agency, although it seems that just as many artists oppose a government agency being involved in the arts, for many different reasons, reasons like they don’t want the government to control what they create。

  Q: What does the professor say about artists’ opinions of government support for the arts?

  A. Most artists believe that the government should provide more funding for the art

  B. Most artists approve of the ways in which the government supports the arts。

  C. Even artists do not agree on whether the government should support the arts。

  D. Even artists have a low opinion of government support for the arts。

  “there are about as many individuals who disagree with the government support as there are those who agree。” 这句话中有很明显的搭配as many...as,语块听力法就运用这种结构加以预测,在听到as many individuals who disagree with the government support,预测到后面会讲“disagree”的内容的话,思路清晰,内容准确。

  同理,“you have lots of artists who support and who have benefited from this agency, although it seems that just as many artists oppose a government agency being involved in the arts, for many different reasons, reasons like they don’t want the government to control what they create。” 这句话中用的逻辑词是“although”,让步前的语块比较简单,艺术家支持及原因,“although”出现时基本判断后面的语块是反对,准确听出”oppose”(此处有连读artists -oppose,很多同学会听成suppose。后还有原因解释这一语块“reasons like they don’t want the government to control what they create。”说明是不愿意支持的,也能选出选项C。

  下面也有两例,大家不妨试试:

  Because the older and more experienced birds who nest in the high density shrub areas have significantly more offspring than those in low density areas. (Tpo8-2)

  It turned out that there were actually four times as many bird pairs or couples living in the stream edge habitat compared to the area away from the stream. (Tpo8-2)


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